Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Koobface Botnet's Scareware Business Model - Part Two

UPDATED - Wednesday, November 18, 2009: A new update is pushed to the hundreds of thousands infected hosts, which is now performing the redirection using dynamically generated .swf files, with every page using the same title "Wonderful Video". The redirection is also a relatively static process.

For instance, if the original koobface redirector is, followed by the .swf redirection it will output

New redirectors and scareware domains pushed within the past few hours include - everlastmovie .cn - Email:; smile-life .cn - Email: ; harry-pott .cn - Email:, beprotected9 .com - Email: and antivir3 .com - Email:

UPDATED - Tuesday, November 17, 2009: Koobface is resuming scareware (Inst_312s2.exe) operations at which was taken offline for a short period of time. ISP has been notified again, action should be taken shortly. The current domain portfolio including new ones parked there: 

ereuqba .cn - Email:
eqoxyda .cn - Email:
evouga .cn - Email:
edivuka .cn - Email:
ebeama .cn - Email:
kebugac .cn - Email:
eqoabce .cn - Email:
kixyhce .cn - Email:
cecyde .cn - Email:
evybine .cn - Email:
eqaone .cn - Email:
dyqunre .cn - Email:
byzivte .cn - Email:
dovzyag .cn - Email:
ebeozag .cn - Email:
cafgouh .cn - Email:
kebfoki .cn - Email:
ebogumi .cn - Email:
dyzani .cn - Email:
dybapi .cn - Email:
dusyti .cn - Email:
dutsyvi .cn - Email:
dutfij .cn - Email:
bysivak .cn - Email:
eqiovak .cn - Email:

cecxoyk .cn - Email:
dyqkuam .cn - Email:
edamym .cn - Email:
eqibuym .cn - Email:
ducyqan .cn - Email:
duzebyn .cn - Email:
etyawjo .cn - Email:
cerdiko .cn - Email:
erauso .cn - Email:
etuacwo .cn - Email:
etuexyp .cn - Email:
etywuq .cn - Email:
ebejar .cn - Email:
ebiuhas .cn - Email:
dozabes .cn - Email:
eqoybu .cn - Email:
eviyzru .cn - Email:
evaopsu .cn - Email:
ebaetu .cn - Email:
dytrevu .cn - Email:
eboezu .cn - Email:
eruqav .cn - Email:
eqoumiv .cn - Email:
epuneyv .cn - Email:
etykauw .cn - Email:
ebeoxuw .cn - Email:
eqidax .cn - Email:
evaolux .cn - Email:
cafropy .cn - Email:
etyupy .cn - Email:
kebquty .cn - Email:
cakevy .cn - Email:
eqouwy .cn - Email:
epuvyiz .cn - Email: 

UPDATED - Monday, November 16, 2009: The Koobface gang is pushing a new update, followed by a new portfolio of scareware redirectors and actual scareware serving domains.

New portfolio of redirectors parked at
befree2 .cn - Email:
scandinavianmall .cn - Email: 
densityoze .cn - Email:
moored2009 .cn - Email:
pica-pica .cn - Email:
stroboscopicmovie .cn - Email:
comedienne .cn - Email:
densityoze .cn - Email:
furorcorner .cn - Email:
ionisationtools .cn - Email:
wax-max .cn - Email:
plate-tracery .cn - Email:
little-bitty .cn - Email:
night-whale .cn - Email:
scary-scary .cn - Email:

Second redirectors portfolio at
disorganization000 .cn - Email:
rainbowlike .cn - Email:
skewercall .cn - Email:
wegenerinfo .cn - Email:
kangaroocar .cn - Email:
pericallis .cn - Email:
treasure-planet .cn - Email:
genusbiz .cn - Email:

Currently pushing scareware from primescan1 .com -;;; Sampled scareware phones back to windowsupdate8 .com/download/timesroman.tif - and angle-meter .com/?b=1 (safewebnetwork .com) -

More scareware domains are parked on the same IPs:
yourantivira7 .com - Email: - detection rate
web-scanm .com - Email: - detection rate
yourantivira3 .com (wwwsecurescana1 .com) - Email:
primescan8 .com
online-check-v11 .com
antivir-scan1 .com - Email:
antispy-scan1 .com - Email:
primescan1 .com
checkforspyware2 .com - Email:
pc-antispyware3 .com - Email:
premium-protection6 .com - Email:
antivir7 .com - Email:
online-check-v7 .com
beprotected8 .com - Email:
pc-antispyware9 .com - Email:
online-check-v9 .com
checkfileshere .com - Email:
scanfileshere .com - Email:
antivir-scano .com - Email:
check-files-now .com - Email:
antivir-scanz .com - Email:
antispy-scanz .com - Email:

ISP's contributing the the monetization of Koobface have been notified.

UPDATE: has been taken offline courtesy of Blue Square Data Group Services Limited -- previous cooperation took place within a 3 hour period -- with the Koobface gang migrating scareware operations to (AS29073 ECATEL-AS , Ecatel Network) and; - (AS24940, HETZNER-AS Hetzner Online AG RZ) - ISPs have been notified.

The .info scareware domain portfolio will be suspended within the next 24 hours.

Ali Baba and the 40 thieves LLC a.k.a my Ukrainian "fan club", the one with the Bahama botnet connection, the recent malvertising attacks connection, and the current market leader of black hat search engine optimization campaigns, has been keeping themselves busy over the past couple of weeks, continuing to add additional layers of legitimacy into their campaigns ( redirectors to accounts leading to compromised hosts), proving that if a cybercrime enterprise wants to, it can run its malicious operations on the shoulders of legitimate service providers using them as "virtual human shield" in order to continue its operations without fear of retribution.
Over the past two weeks, the Koobface gang once again indicated that it reads my blog, "appreciates" the ways I undermine the monetization element of their campaigns, and next to redirecting Facebook's entire IP space to my blog, they've also, for the first time ever, moved from using my name in their redirectors, to typosquatting it.

For instance, the -- now suspended -- Koobface domain pancho-2807 .com is registered to Pancho Panchev,, followed by rdr20090924 .info registered to Vancho Vanchev, As always, I'm totally flattered, and I'm still in a "stay tuned" mode for my very own branded scareware release - the Advanced Pro-Danchev Premium Live Mega Professional Anti-Spyware Online Cleaning Cyber Protection Scanner 2010.

It's time to summarize some of the Koobface gang's recent activities, establish a direct connection with the Bahama botnet, the Ukrainian dating scam agency Confidential Connections whose botnet operations were linked to money-mule recruitment scams, with active domains part of their affiliate network parked at a Koobface-connected scareware serving domains, followed by the fact that they're all responding to an IP involved in the ongoing U.S Federal Forms themed blackhat SEO campaign. It couldn't get any uglier.

As of recently the gang has migrated to a triple-layer of legitimate infrastructure, consisting of redirectors, leading to automatically registered Blogspot account which redirect to Koobface infected hosts serving the Koobface binary and the redirecting to a periodically updated scareware domain. Here are some of the domains involved.

Ongoing campaing dynamically generating URLs redirecting to automatically registered Blogspot accounts, using the following URLs: /VumFK -> drbryanferazzoli /lJcK3 -> toyetoyebalnaja /3mFyzs -> raimeishelkowitz /2wuSPj -> kelakelamccovery /2Pnn8l -> pattyedevero /2wuSPj -> kelakelamccovery /1HDmbm -> malinegainey-green. /2xf5vB -> advaadvarukuni /3mFyzs -> raimeishelkowitz /2xf5vB -> advaadvarukuni /46pcCI -> paulangelogaetano /1HDmbm -> malinegainey-green /3JZsDD -> derieuwsdarrius /lJcK3 -> toyetoyebalnaja /2h7XRU -> shunnarahamandla /3JZsDD -> derieuwsdarrius /3Zj98G -> schubachmarquis /1sXgRH -> nicnicmiralles /3eijza -> froneksaxxon /1I3rr7 -> attreechappy /2m3wP4 -> bilsboroughkebrom /30wcJn -> raheelanucci /2U7jYM -> orvelorvelblues /1CWOlZ -> kondrackinehemias /2m3wP4 -> bilsboroughkebrom /1qbXsi -> lizzamottymotty /79ONz -> rayvongonsalves /22Jyex -> klaartjebjorgvinsson /p07jC -> humphriesteelateela /2lpZXx -> kalandraaleisha

The Blogspot accounts consist of a single post of automatically syndicated news item, which compared to previous campaign which relied on 25+ Koobface infected IPs directly embedded at Blogspot itself, this time relies on a single URL which attempts to connect to any of the Koobface infected IPs embedded on it. The currently active campaign redirects to rainbowlike cn/?pid=312s02&sid=4db12f, which then redirects to the scareware domain secure-your-files .com, with the sample phoning back to forbes-2009 .com/?b=1s1 -, with another domain parked there activate-antivirus .com - Email:

Time to expose the entire portfolio of scareware domains pushed by the gang, and offer some historical OSINT data on their activities which were not publicly released until enough connections between multiple campaigns were established.Which ISPs are currently offering hosting services for the scareware domains portfolio pushed by the Koobface gang? The current portfolio is parked at (AS36351 SOFTLAYER Technologies Inc. surprise, surprise!); (AS44042 ROOT eSolutions surprise, surprise part two) and at (AS44042 ROOT eSolutions).

Scareware redirectors parked at
rainbowlike .cn - Email:
authorized-payments .com - Email:
poltergeist2000 .cn - Email:
sestiad2 .cn - Email:
uninformed2 .cn - Email:
retrocession2 .cn - Email:
unimpressible3 .cn - Email:
uncrown3 .cn - Email:
sneak-peak .cn - Email:
cellostuck .cn - Email:
stinkingthink .cn - Email:
skewercall .cn - Email:
be-spoken .cn - Email:
transmitteron .cn - Email:
kangaroocar .cn - Email:
pericallis .cn - Email:
exponentials .cn - Email:
triforms .cn - Email:
outperformoly .cn - Email:
genusbiz .cn - Email:

Scareware domains parked at; and
anti-malware-scan-for-you .com - Email: information@brunter.sw
available-scanner .com - Email:
bewareofspyware .com - Email:
defender-scan-for-you .com - Email: information@brunter.sw
defender-scan-for-you3 .com - Email:
foryoumalwarecheck .com - Email: information@brunter.sw
friends-protection .com - Email:
further-scan .com - Email:
goodonlineprotection .com - Email:
good-scans .com - Email:
guidetosecurity3 .com - Email:
howtocleanpc2 .com - Email:
howtoprotectpc3 .com - Email:
howtosecure2 .com - Email:
howtosecurea .com - Email:
how-to-secure-pc2 .com - Email:
protection-secrets .com - Email:
scan-for-you .com - Email: information@brunter.sw
scannerantimalware2 .com
scannerantimalware4 .com
scannerantimalware6 .com
secure-your-data0 .com - Email:
secure-your-files .com - Email:
security-guide5 .com - Email:
security-info1 .com - Email:
security-tips3 .com - Email:
security-tools4 .com - Email:
webviruscheck1 .com
webviruscheck-4 .com
webviruscheck5 .com

Let us further expand the portfolio by listing the newly introduced scareware domains at, which was first mentioned in part one of the Koobface Botnet's Scareware Business Model as a centralized hosting location for the gang's portfolio.

Scareware domains parked at
g-antivirus .com - Email:
generalantivirus com - Email:
general-antivirus .com - Email:
general-av .com - Email:
generalavs .com - Email:
gobackscan .com - Email:
gobarscan .com - Email:
godeckscan .com - Email:
godirscan .com - Email:
godoerscan .com - Email:
goeachscan .com - Email:
goeasescan .com - Email:
gofatescan .com - Email:
gofowlscan .com - Email:
gohandscan .com - Email:
goherdscan .com - Email:
goironscan. com - Email:
gojestscan. com - Email:
golimpscan. com - Email:
golookscan. com - Email:
gomendscan. com - Email:
gomutescan. com - Email:
gonamescan. com - Email:

goneatscan .com - Email:
gopickscan. com - Email:
gorestscan. com - Email:
goroomscan. com - Email:
gosakescan. com - Email:
goscanadd. com - Email:
goscanback .com - Email:
goscanbar .com - Email:
goscancode .com - Email:
goscandeck. com - Email:
goscandir. com - Email:
goscandoer .com - Email:
goscanease. com - Email:
goscanfowl. com - Email:
goscanhand. com - Email:
goscanherd. com - Email:
goscanjest. com - Email:
goscanlike. com - Email:
goscanlimp. com - Email:
goscanmend .com - Email:
goscanname. com - Email:
goscanneat .com - Email:
goscanpick. com - Email:

goscanref. com - Email:
goscanrest .com - Email:
goscanroom .com - Email:
goscansake. com - Email:
goscanslip. com - Email:
goscansole .com - Email:

goscantoil. com - Email:
goscantrio. com - Email:
goscanxtra. com - Email:
gosolescan. com - Email:
gotoilscan. com - Email:
gotrioscan. com - Email:
gowellscan. com - Email:
goxtrascan. com - Email:
iantiviruspro .com - Email:
iantivirus-pro .com - Email:
ia-pro .com - Email:
iav-pro .com - Email:
in5ch .com - Email:
in5cs .com - Email:
in5ct .com - Email:
in5id .com - Email:
in5it .com - Email:
in5iv .com - Email:
in5st .com - Email:
inavpro .com - Email:
scanatom6 .com - Email:
windoptimizer .com - Email:
wopayment .com - Email:
woptimizer .com - Email:

cafropy .cn - Email:
cakevy .cn - Email:
dotqyuw .cn - Email:
dovnaji .cn - Email:
dovzyag .cn - Email:
dozabes .cn - Email:
ducyqan .cn - Email:
duvaba .cn - Email:
duvegy .cn - Email:
duwbiec .cn - Email:
duxsoez .cn - Email:
duzebyn .cn - Email:
dybapi .cn - Email:
dyqkuam .cn - Email:
dyqunre .cn - Email:
dytrevu .cn - Email:
dyzani .cn - Email:
ebaetu .cn - Email:
ebeoxuw .cn - Email:
ebeozag .cn - Email:
edoqeg .cn - Email:
epuneyv .cn - Email:
epuvyiz .cn - Email:

eqadozu .cn - Email:
eqaofed .cn - Email:
eqaone .cn - Email:
eqayweh .cn - Email:
eqibuym .cn - Email:
eqidax .cn - Email:
eqiovak .cn - Email:
eqoabce .cn - Email:
eqoumiv .cn - Email:
erauso .cn - Email:
ereuqba .cn - Email:
erujale .cn - Email:
eruqav .cn - Email:
esuteyb .cn - Email:
etuacwo .cn - Email:
etuexyp .cn - Email:
etyawjo .cn - Email:
etykauw .cn - Email:
evaolux .cn - Email:
evaopsu .cn - Email:
keturma .cn - Email:
kevsopi .cn - Email:
kijxayt .cn - Email:
kiluxso .cn - Email:
kipuxo .cn - Email:
kirdabe .cn - Email:
kiwraux .cn - Email:
kixyhce .cn - Email:

adjudg .info - Email:
afront .info - Email:
anprun .info - Email:
apalet .info - Email:
argier .info - Email:
asbro .info - Email:
atquit .info - Email:
atwain .info - Email:
bagse .info - Email:
bedaub .info - Email:
bedrid .info - Email:
beeves .info - Email:
besort .info - Email:
bettev .info - Email:
bettre .info - Email:
birnam .info - Email:
botled .info - Email:
brawns .info - Email:
brisky .info - Email:
camlet .info - Email:
caretz .info - Email:
cheir .info - Email:
cuique .info - Email:
daphni .info - Email:

deble .info - Email:
debuty .info - Email:
declin. info - Email:
devicel .info -
dislik. info - Email:
dolchi. info - Email:
dolet. info - Email:
dolet. info - Email:
droope .info - Email:
empery .info - Email:
engirt .info - Email:
eratile .info - Email:
erpeer .info - Email:
evyns. info - Email:
exampl .info - Email:
extrip .info - Email:
fatted .info - Email:
fedar. info - Email:
fifthz .info - Email:
figgle .info - Email:
fliht .info - Email:
fosset .info - Email:
freckl .info - Email:
freiny. info - Email:

froday. info - Email:
fulier. info - Email:
gaudad .info - Email:
gelded. info - Email:
gicke .info - Email:
girded .info - Email:
goterm .info - Email:
guiany. info - Email:
haere .info - Email:
hilloa. info - Email:
holdit. info - Email:
hownet .info - Email:
ignomy. info - Email:
implor. info - Email:
inclin. info - Email:
inquir .info - Email:
jorgan .info - Email:
kedder .info - Email:
knivel .info - Email:
krapen .info - Email:
lavolt .info - Email:
lavyer .info - Email:

lequel .info - Email:
lowatt .info - Email: - Email: - Email:
midid .info - Email:
miloty .info - Email:
mobled .info - Email:
monast. info - Email:
moont. info - Email:
narowz .info - Email:
nevils .info - Email:
nnight .info - Email:
nroof .info - Email:
numben .info - Email:
obsque .info - Email:
octian .info - Email:
odest. info - Email:
onclew .info - Email:
orifex .info - Email:
orodes .info - Email:
outliv .info - Email:

pante .info - Email:
pasio .info - Email:
pittie. info - Email:
plamet .info - Email:
plazec. info - Email:
potinz. info - Email:
pplay. info - Email:
pretia .info - Email:
quoifs. info - Email:
qward. info - Email:
raught .info - Email:
realfly .info - Email:
reglet. info - Email:
rogero .info - Email:
sallut. info - Email:
sawme .info - Email:
scarre .info - Email:
scrowl. info - Email:
sigeia. info - Email:
sighal. info - Email:
speen. info - Email:
spelem .info - Email:
spinge. info - Email:
squach. info - Email:

stampo. info - Email:
steepy. info - Email:
strawy. info - Email:
suivez. info - Email:
sundery .info - Email:
surnam. info - Email:
swoln. info - Email:
swoons .info - Email:
taulus. info - Email:
tenshy. info - Email:
tented. info - Email:
ticedu. info - Email:
tithed. info - Email:
topful. info - Email:
unclin. info - Email:
undeaf. info - Email:
unowed. info - Email:
unwept. info - Email:
usicam. info - Email:
vagrom. info - Email:
veldun. info - Email:
vipren. info - Email:
voided. info - Email:
volsce. info - Email:
washy. info - Email:
wincot. info - Email:
wiving. info - Email:
wooer. info - Email:
xonker. info - Email: 

Historical OSINT of Koobface scareware activity over a period of two weeks
The following is a snapshot of Koobface scareware activity during the last two weeks, establishing a direct connection between the Koobface botnet, the ongoing blackhat SEO campaigns, the Bahama botnet with scareware samples modifying HOSTS files, and an Ukrainian dating scam agency where the gang appears to be part of an affiliate network.

Scareware samples pushed by Koobface, with associated detection rates:
mexcleaner .in - Email:
safetyscantool .com - - Email:
stabilitytoolsonline .com - Email:
securitytestnetonline .com - - Email:
securityprogramguide .com - Email:
cheapsecurityscan .com - Email:
securitycheckwest .com; webbiztest .com - Email:
securitycodereviews .com - - Email:
netmedtest .com - - Email:
toolsdirectnow .com - Email:
(ratspywawe .in; wqdefender .in; pivocleaner .in; mexcleaner .in; sapesoft .in; alsoft .in; samosoft .in; jastaspy .in; lastspy .in; felupdate .info; inkoclear .info; drlcleaner .info; tiposoft .info; fkupd .eu; piremover .eu; igsoft .eu; sersoft .eu) - detection rate

Download locations of the actual scareware binary used over the past two weeks:
0ni9o1s3feu60 .cn - Email:
6j5aq93iu7yv4 .cn - Email:
mf6gy4lj79ny5 .cn - Email:
84u9wb2hsh4p6 .cn - Email:
6pj2h8rqkhfw7 .cn - Email:
7cib5fzf462g8 .cn - Email:
7bs5nfzfkp8q8 .cn - Email:
kt4lwumfhjb7a .cn - Email:
q2bf0fzvjb5ca .cn - Email:
rncocnspr44va .cn - Email:
t1eayoft9226b .cn - Email:
4go4i9n76ttwd .cn - Email:
kzvi4iiutr11e .cn - Email:
hxc7jitg7k57e .cn - Email:
mfbj6pquvjv8e .cn - Email:
mt3pvkfmpi7de .cn - Email:
fb7pxcqyb45oe .cn - Email:
fyivbrl3b0dyf .cn - Email:
z6ailnvi94jgg .cn - Email:
ue4x08f5myqdl .cn - Email:
p7keflvui9fkl .cn - Email:
gjpwsc5p7oe3m .cn - Email:
f1uq1dfi3qkcm .cn - Email:
7mx1z5jq0nt3o .cn - Email:
3uxyctrlmiqeo .cn - Email:
p0umob9k2g7mp .cn - Email:
od32qjx6meqos .cn - Email:
bnfdxhae1rgey .cn - Email:
7zju2l82i2zhz .cn - Email:

What's the deal with the historical OSINT and why wasn't this data communicated right away? Keep reading.

The Bahama Botnet Connection
During September, the folks at ClickForensics made an interesting observation regarding my Ukrainian "fan club" and the ad revenue stealing/click-fraud committing botnet Bahama - some of the scareware samples were modifying the HOSTS file and presenting the victim with "one of those cybecrime-friendly search engines" stealing revenue in the process.

Once the connection was also established by me at a later stage, data released in regard to the New York Times malvertising attack once again revealed a connection between all campaigns - the very same domains used to serve the scareware, were also used in a blackhat SEO campaign which I analyzed a week before the incident took place. Basically, the scareware pushed by the Koobface botnet, as well as the scareware pushed by the blackhat SEO campaigns maintained by the gangs is among the several propagation approaches used for the DNS records poisoning to take place:

"However, in the case of the Bahama Botnet, this DNS translation method gets corrupted.  The Bahama botnet malware causes the infected computer to mistranslate a domain name.  Instead of translating “” as, an infected computer will translate it as That number doesn’t represent any computer owned by Google.  Instead, it represents a computer located in Canada.  When a user with an infected machine performs a search on what they think is, the query actually goes to the Canadian computer, which pulls real search results directly from Google, fiddles with them a bit, and displays them to the searcher.  

Now the searcher is looking at a page that looks exactly like the Google search results page, but it’s not.  A click on the apparently “organic” results will redirect as a paid click through several ad networks or parked domains — some complicit, some not.  Regardless, cost per click (CPC) fees are generated, advertisers pay, and click fraud has occurred."

The mentioned is actually AS30407 (Velcom), which has also been used in recent campaigns.

ISP and domain registrars have been notified, action should be taken shortly. What was particularly interesting to observe was scareware pushed by the Koobface botnet phoning back to its well known urodinam .net/8732489273.php domain, was also modifying the HOSTS file in the following way. Sample HOSTS modification of scareware (MD5: 0x0FBF1A9F8E6E305138151440DA58B4F1) pushed by Koobface:

Sample HOSTS modification of scareware (MD5: 0x0FBF1A9F8E6E305138151440DA58B4F1) pushed by blackhat SEO:

The historical OSINT paragraph mentioned that several of the scareware domains pushed during the past two weeks were responding to This very same IP was hosting domains part of an Ukrainian dating scam agency known as Confidential Connections earlier this year, whose spamming operations were linked to a botnet involved in money mule recruitment activities.

For the time being, the following dating scam domains are responding to the same IP:
healthe-lovesite .com - Email:
love-isaclick .com - Email:
love-is-special .com - Email:
only-loveall .com - Email:
and-i-loveyoutoo .com - Email:
andiloveyoutoo .com - Email:
romantic-love-forever .com - Email:

love-youloves .com - Email:
love-galaxys .com - Email:
love-formeandyou .com - Email:
ifound-thelove .net - Email:
findloveon .net - Email:
love-isexcellent .net - Email:

Could it get even more malicious and fraudulent than that? Appreciate my thetoric. The same email ( that was used to register the dating scam domains was also used to register exploit serving domains at, participate in phishing campaigns, and register a money mule recruitment site for the non-existent Allied Insurance LLC. (Allied Group, Inc.).

Now that's a multi-tasking underground enterprise, isn't it? The ISPs have been notified, domains suspension is pending.

Related posts:
Koobface Botnet Redirects Facebook's IP Space to my Blog
New Koobface campaign spoofs Adobe's Flash updater
Social engineering tactics of the Koobface botnet
Koobface Botnet Dissected in a TrendMicro Report
Koobface Botnet's Scareware Business Model
Movement on the Koobface Front - Part Two
Movement on the Koobface Front
Koobface - Come Out, Come Out, Wherever You Are
Dissecting Koobface Worm's Twitter Campaign
Dissecting the Koobface Worm's December Campaign
Dissecting the Latest Koobface Facebook Campaign 
The Koobface Gang Mixing Social Engineering Vectors

This post has been reproduced from Dancho Danchev's blog.